Selected Moments of the 20th Century

A work in progress edited by Daniel Schugurensky
Department of Adult Education and Counselling Psychology,
The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE/UT)


Latin American Statement to the World Education Forum in Dakar

This year, on the occasion of the World Education Forum that was going to be held in April in Dakar, Senegal, three Latin American educators and researchers (Pablo Latapí, Sylvia Schmelkes and Rosa-María Torres) prepared a document outlining several concerns and suggestions. This document, entitled "Pronunciamiento Latinoamericano por una Educación para Todos" (or "Latin American statement to the World Education Forum", circulated by e-mail to a list of nearly 200 educators a few days prior to the Forum.

The World Education Forum took place in Dakar on April 26-28 of 2000. It was convened by five international organizations: UNDP (United Nations Development Program), UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund), UNESCO, UNICEF and the World Bank. The Forum's objective was to present and discuss the global Education for All (EFA) Assessment and to define a future agenda for EFA. The Dakar Forum had to face the fact that the six goals set a decade before at the World Conference on Education for All (held in Jomtien, Thailand, in of March 1990) were not met by the year 2000.

In Dakar, hard copies were distributed in both Spanish and English to many Forum participants. Also, it was adopted and presented, during the last plenary session, by the official delegation of Ecuador. In Dakar 2000, governments, representatives of civil society and international agencies adopted a new Framework of Action for Education for All, which basically ratified the same goals adopted in Jomtien in 1990, and postponed the deadline to 2015.

After the World Education Forum, the Latin American Statement continued circulating in Spanish and English. As a result, more than two thousand individuals and organizations added their signatures, and many of them also made comments and suggestions for changes to the text. Adherents to the Statements come from a wide range of countries, sectors and institutions. This includes governmental institutions, political parties, universities, research centers, public and private schools, NGOs, teacher unions, student associations, grassroots and indigenous organizations, mass media, churches, private companies, and international agencies. Signatures continue to be added from Latin America and from other regions at

Below is the full text of the revised version of the Statement, and the signatures up to July 2001. For more information on the Statement, its historical context, and reactions to it, please visit  for the Spanish version, and  for the English version.


On the Occasion of the World Education Forum

Dakar, April 26-28, 2000

The start of a new decade and of a new century is an invitation to reflect on past achievements and to prepare a future agenda based on new available knowledge and on lessons learned.

This is a moment to evaluate, rectify, and renew commitments in education. The year 2000 was the horizon for global programs such as Education for All (EFA), launched in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990, as well as for regional and national initiatives for educational change and development around the world. Many evaluation activities are going on at the global, regional and national levels, to assess the fulfillment of goals and to define future agendas. At the end of April 2000 the World Education Forum took place in Dakar, Senegal. The results of the EFA Assessment were presented and a new Declaration and Framework for Action for the year 2015 were adopted.

In this context and at this moment, a group of Latin American educators and intellectuals wish to share with other colleagues and with the international educational community some concerns and reflections from Latin America. Ours is an important region in the developing world. It has its own historical, educational and cultural characteristics. We Latin Americans are proud to have developed innovative and fertile ideas, approaches and experiences in education, appropriate to our particular realities.

Our peoples deserve more and better education

1. We are seriously concerned with the situation of education around the world, in developing countries and in our region in particular. After several decades of reiterative attempts at educational reform in our countries, the results are questionable. In any case, they are not visible in the field that is at the very core of education and of any educational effort: learning and the full development of individuals. "Emphasize learning" was a fundamental mandate of Education for All . However, the indicator for learning (one of 18 indicators that countries had to account for) had to be eliminated from the final evaluation report of the decade since most countries had no information to offer. "Improve learning" was the mandate for the nineties in our region. However, learning assessments carried out in the last few years in different countries show results that fall far below expectations. Educational systems have not developed proper indicators nor have they evidences of achievement regarding the full development of learners´ potential and creativity and the consolidation of their values.

2. Latin America, as other regions in the developing world, has a long history of pronunciations and declarations, of commitments and goals that are not achieved and are cyclically postponed. Often, plans overlap with little regard for continuity, or run parallel to each other without coordination.

- In 1979 (Mexico Declaration), the "Major Project in the Field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean" was approved. It was launched in Quito in 1981, under the coordination of the regional UNESCO office (UNESCO-OREALC). This project set three goals for the year 2000: universal access to primary schooling, eradication of adult illiteracy, and improvement of the quality and efficiency of education.

- Later, in 1990, in Jomtien, Thailand, "Education for All" was launched in a world conference organized by UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA and the World Bank. The conference was attended by 155 government delegations as well as by 125 non-governmental organizations from around the world. Six goals were agreed to in Jomtien, partially coinciding with those of the Major Project, and also for the year 2000.

- Four years later, in 1994, the Miami Summit, convened by US President Clinton, took place. A "Plan for Universal Access to Education for 2010" was launched and later ratified as "Education Initiative" by the II Summit in Santiago, in 1998. This hemispherical initiative adopted goals for the three educational levels, including tertiary education. The initiative is headed by the US government, and is coordinated by the governments of Mexico, Argentina and Chile, with the participation of several international, regional and national organizations (OAS, World Bank, IDB and USAID among the most important).

Now, the World Forum in Dakar acknowledges that the Education for All goals were not met in the agreed time span and fundamentally ratifies the same goals, renews commitments and postpones the deadline for reaching these goals to the year 2015.

International agencies and national governments design and approve these global and regional goals and commit themselves to their fulfillment in the deadlines they define, and continually rectify and postpone such commitments and deadlines. Each of these plans implies important investments of energy and financial resources. When goals are not met and results are not evident, social credibility regarding education is inevitably deteriorated, and with it the possibility of educational progress and change.

3. The tradition of educational reform in our countries has been to seek the blame for the problems on the lack of financial resources and to situate the problems on the side of implementation. Nevertheless, it is now evident that there are also severe problems on the side of policy formulation and design. Thus the need for a profound revision and reorientation in the way both governments and international agencies address education in general, and education reform in particular.

Education policies recommended and adopted in the last few years are not responding satisfactorily to needs and expectations of the Latin American population. They have been unable to reach the education system, particularly teachers, and they have not achieved the expected results. The comparative assessment carried out by the Regional Office of UNESCO in 1997 in 13 Latin American countries in the areas of language and mathematics among 3rd and 4th grade students of private and public schools, revealed that Cuba is, within this region, the country with best learning results in both areas. Cuba is precisely the only country that did not follow international recommendations of educational policy in the nineties, and the only one that did not rely on loans from international banks to carry out its education reform. We believe these facts are sufficient evidence of the need to critically reflect on past actions and to review contents and strategies for education reform currently tried out in our countries.

Required revisions

4. Our analysis of the development of basic education in our region and in the world leads us to propose some rectifications that pertain directly to Latin America but that could also be considered by other regions with similar concerns:

a) Policies for educational development should be inspired by fundamental human values and should seek to insure that the educational service contributes to the growth and development of people and of societies. Indicators used to evaluate progress in education, currently centered around coverage and efficiency of school systems, do not reveal the contribution of education to these fundamental values: full development of learners, awareness-building, responsible exercise of liberty, capacity of relating to others with respect. Neither do they reveal whether education systems are responding to the basic needs of the majority of the population, or whether these responses are adequate and meaningful.

b) Decision-makers must think ethically. Educational systems are there not only to serve the economy, consumption or material progress, but mainly to serve the development of human potential. In particular, the expansion of knowledge that characterizes the start of this millennium and that is deeply affecting educational systems, should be understood within this framework of integrality and responsibility.

c) We are by no means satisfied with what has been done to attain greater equity in the distribution of opportunities of educational access, retention, graduation, transition to further educational levels and, above all, learning. Greater equity has been achieved as a consequence of the tendency toward universalization of a given educational level, mainly primary education. However, this has not meant increased equity in terms of learning results, which are the true measure of educational policies aimed at social justice. The growing use of information and communication technologies in the field of education threatens to produce even deeper and more serious inequalities if we continue to extend basic education with the same criteria used in the past. The problem must definitely be faced in a different way. Society and governments, but especially the latter, must allocate the necessary resources and make the necessary efforts to improve the quality of educational services offered to the poor in both rural and urban areas, to indigenous populations, and in general to all those excluded from the benefits of basic education. If we are not able to offer improved education to those who need it most, and an egalitarian education for both men and women, it will be difficult to progress towards educational equity. Without educational equity, we will not progress towards social justice.

d) Given the cultural diversity that characterizes Latin American peoples, educational quality implies recognizing the need to diversify educational supply in order to insure not only respect for, but the strengthening of, different cultures. Each group has a cultural contribution to make to the education of the population as a whole. However, governments and societies must be wary of permitting that diversification of basic educational services be used to conceal an impoverished supply. The comparatively lower capacity of the disadvantaged groups to demand adequate quality of service and of results should always be taken into account and never be taken advantage of.

e) It is necessary to recuperate the original spirit of Education for All in its "expanded vision of basic education": an education capable of satisfying basic education needs of all (children, youth, and adults), both within and outside the school system (family, community, workplace, libraries and cultural centers, media, modern technologies, etc.) and throughout life. A multi-sectoral approach to education and educational policy must be enforced, since problems cannot be explained nor solved exclusively from within the education sector, and require a responsible economic and social policy concerned with the welfare of the majority of the population. Only a system-wide view of education will be able to overcome narrow conceptions that fragment education and prioritize education policies according to ages, levels, components or modalities. A long-term vision of educational policy, able to overcome the immediate and short-term-oriented decisions that are often imposed by the dynamics of politics or of international financing, is also a must in our region. The emphasis on primary education that characterized the nineties, while important in itself, was done at the cost of postponing the need to face the problems of secondary and higher education, and of practically abandoning education and training of young people and of adults.

Preservation of Latin American values

a) In the present globalized context, we wish to preserve some values that are essential to our Latin American identity.

- The supreme value of the human being and the quest for meaning of human existence. We value the respect for the human being and his/her development over and above material progress based exclusively on increased consumption and comfort. We believe in the importance of creating the necessary conditions for each person to find meaning in his/her life and responses to his/her existential questions.

- The communitary meaning of life, which is characteristic of our cultures, especially Indian cultures: sharing and serving, solidarity rather than competitiveness, learning to live together, favoring collective over personal well-being, respecting differences against tendencies toward exclusion, and caring for the weak and unprotected.

- Multiculturalism and interculturalism. Each of our nations is a people of peoples, developed through processes of biological and cultural interaction and mingling. The value of pluralism -- of races, ethnic groups and cultures -- is essential to our identity and should be reinforced through education.

- The value of ways of knowing and approaching reality that go beyond instrumental rationality: symbolic languages, intuition, sensibility to human vulnerability, as well as a creative recuperation of tradition and the appreciation of beauty.

- Liberty, understood - as Paulo Freire did - as a conquest over our selfishness and that of others, as the building of each person's autonomy and sense of responsibility, as overcoming all oppressions through the understanding of the oppressor and the willingness to share with him or her the task of building a world for all.

- Work as a means of personal fulfillment and thus as a basic right, and not as an a-critical submission to the interests of capital or as an efficiency-based search for profit.

- The quest of the "other" in the construction of "ourselves", as the basis of the ethical meaning of human life and the continuous presence of hope and utopia.

- The values that give us identity should be preserved through education. They are the basis for achieving peace based on justice and on respect for all. We would like these values to transcend towards every-day interaction, the media, laws, philosophies that guide education and, in general, to all cultural domains. Within the education system, we would like these values to inspire the education of educators and students, curricular contents and teaching methods, school organization and mission; the distribution of resources, the criteria for planning and evaluating, and the interpersonal relationships of all those involved in education.

b) We strongly state the need for societal participation not only in the implementation of educational plans and programs, but also in policy design and discussion. Education is a public issue and should, therefore, involve all its actors and elicit their responsible participation. This is particularly critical in the case of teachers, who are the key actors in education and educational change. To proclaim the need for participation is not enough; times and spaces must be defined and procured, and criteria and concrete mechanisms put in place for participation to occur as a regular process in education: from the local to the global level, from the school to the ministries and inter-governmental instances where education is defined and educational decisions are made. Valuable initiatives that materialize citizen participation in education have emerged in a number of countries in the region over the last few years, and should be strengthened and multiplied.

c) We request our governments and societies, as well as international cooperation agencies, to multiply efforts towards equity, prioritizing the more marginalized sectors of the population, and articulating educational programs with wider policies aimed at improving economic and social equity.

d) We make a strong call for the preservation of cultural and educational diversity at the regional, country and local levels, and against a homogenizing and hegemonic globalization process.

e) We require international organizations to revise their role in the definition of educational policies and in their implementation at the regional and national levels. We are concerned with the growing importance of these organizations, particularly of multilateral financial organizations, as decision-makers and actors not only in financial aspects, but also in technical assistance, research, monitoring and evaluation of education policies and programs in our region. We are concerned with the dominant thinking about education that has spread over the last few years, which is characterized by a strong economic bias and by an overwhelming predominance of administrative aspects in the understanding of education and in the implementation of educational reform. The need for reviewing the traditional model of international cooperation, especially in the field of education, is acknowledged by scholars and specialists the world over, and by international cooperation agencies themselves. The role of international organizations must be that of facilitating, promoting, communicating, and catalyzing.

f) We convene our governments and national societies to regain initiative and leadership in the definition and conduction of educational matters, to develop a critical mass of professionals and specialists of the highest level, and to consolidate an informed citizenship able to significantly participate in educational debate and action. After a period of strong homogenization of educational policy and of simplification of educational processes, we must regain the ability to think and act on the basis of accumulated knowledge and of the particular characteristics of each national and local context.

We invite the international education community, and in particular those participating in the Dakar Forum, to ponder on these reflections which we fraternally share.

SIGNATURES (UP TO July 11, 2001)

ARGENTINA: Graciela Acuña, Susana Agarote, Inés Aguerrondo, Ana Almada, Martha Amuchástegui, Sonia Araujo, Laura Arocena, Hna. Liliana Badoloni, Mónica Báez, Mariana Baquero, María Eugenia Bergera, Martha Betti de Milicchio, Ana Bloj, Alberto Borda, Mónica Borgogno, Cecilia Braslavsky, Gustavo Marcelo Bravo, Gustavo Brufman, Juliana Burton, Zulma Caballero, Adriana Calvar, Susana Carena, Marta Casarini, Miriam Casco, Mirta Castedo, José Antonio Castorina, Cristina Catano, María Ester Ceschin, Ema Cibotti, José Luis Coraggio, Alberto Croce, Ricardo Croce, Ester Cruz, Liliana D'Ambola, Claudia Danani, Ana María D´Andrea, Laura Delamer, Bibiana Del Brutto, Adriana D'Elia, Nora Elichiry, Maximiliano Estigarribia, Justa Ezpeleta (Mexico), Laura Fainstein, Olga Faucher, Alberto Federico, Emilia Ferreiro (Mexico), Susana Fiorito, Roberto Follari, Sabina Garbus (Mexico), Daniel García, Juan José García Vergelin, Néstor García Morro, Inés Gómez, Graciela González (y equipo Escuela Aequalis, Mendoza), Ana Gravina, Diana Grunfeld, Silvina Guaita, Mabel Guidi, Gladys Gutiérrez, Silvina Gvirtz, Natalia Herger, Isabel Hernández (Chile), Susana Hintze, Norma Iannizzotto, Marcela Isaías, Ana Jaramillo, María Elsa José, Carina Kaplan, Irene Kit, Susana Lamboglia, Ariel Langer, Gustavo Larsen, Cristina Latanzio, Irene Laxalt, Graciela Lazzaro, Mariana Lombardi, Lilians Mirtha López, Claudio Luraghi, Daniel Luzzi, Ana María Madrigal, Marta Maffei (and the Confederación de Trabajadores de la Educación de la República Argentina - CTERA), Eliana Magariños, Karina Mallamaci, Marcelo Mango, Roberto Marengo, Mónica Marquina, Alicia Martignoni, Alicia Martínez, María Elba Martínez, María Laura Mauceri, Eduardo Paganini, Norma Pariente, Carlos Mario Melone, Ovide Menin, Graciela Messina (Chile), Claudia Molinari, Marcela Mollis, Daniel Nieva, Marcos Ochoa, Ana Pagano, Irma Parentella, Rosa Lilian Pesalaschia, Paula Pogré, Sergio Quiroga, Patricia Ratto, Paula Razquin, Cecilia Re, Paula Reusi, Graciela Riquelme, Andrés Rivera, Ana Rodi, Lidia Rodríguez, María Elena Rodríguez, Luis Roggi, Karina Rojas, Pablo Rosales, Diana Rotman, Mariela Rubio, Marta Salcedo, Cecilia Sarmiento, José María Serra, Margarita Sgro, Celia Simioli, María Estela Soler, Ana María Suárez, Silvia Susana Susmano, María del Carmen Tobar, Laura Tochetto, Isabel Tramontini, Azucena Amelia Triep, Pastor Oswaldo E. Ullrich, Gabriela Urrutibehety, Regina Usandizaga, Conrado Vasches, Estela Vergelín, Carlos José Vigil, Hilda Vitullo, María Alejandra Yoya, Carlos Zagni, Eva Zamporlini, Inés Zevallos, María Jesús Zudaire.

CONFLUENCIA, Red Nacional de ONGs de Educación Popular de Argentina, integrada por 18 ONGs esparcidas en todo el territorio del país: ACCION EDUCATIVA (Santa Fe), CANOA (Santa Fe), CEASOL (Buenos Aires), CIPES (Buenos Aires), CIPES (Resistencia-Chaco), IDEAS (Buenos Aires), PRIES (Buenos Aires, CECOPAL (Córdoba), SEAP (Córdoba), MUTUAL MUJICA (Córdoba), SERVIPRO (Córdoba), SENDAS (San Luis), FEC (Mendoza), CADIF (Tucumán), SERDEP (Tucumán), INAL (Misiones), INAL (Buenos Aires), IREPS (Neuquén).

BOLIVIA: Noel Aguirre Ledezma, Teresa Alem Rojo, Miguel Arriaga, Remberto Catacora, Víctor Gallo Toro, Eduardo García, Benito Fernández, Sonia Montaño (Chile), Ivonne Nogales, Enrique Oizumi (and the national team of Fe y Alegría-Bolivia), María Oviedo, Jorge Rivera (Costa Rica), Erick Roth, José Luis Tellería, Erick Torrico Villanueva.

BRAZIL: Adriana Medeiros Farías, Ana María [Nita] Araújo Freire, Ana Rosa Abreu, Angela Antunes, Angela C. de Siqueira, Antonio Ibáñez Ruiz, Attico Chassot, Augusto Álvaro Jerônimo Gomes, Beatriz Cardoso, Camilla Croso Silva, Carlos Augusto Abicalil (and Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores em Educação - CNTE), Claudius Ceccon, Dagmar Zibas, Daniel Raviolo (Argentina), Domingos Nobre, Elba Siquiera de Sá Barreto, Eliana Matos, Elie Ghanem, Fulvia Rosenberg, Francisco Nascimento de Brito, Gustavo Cherubin, Irineu Tamaio, Jane Paiva, José Carlos Barreto, Jesús de Alvarenga Bastos, José Carlos Marques, José Carlos Sena Evangelista, Jose Eustaquio Romão, Laura Tavares, Leonice de Souza Lotufo, Lucia Helena Texeira, Luiz Fernando Dourado, Madza Ednir Noguera, Magdalania Cauby Franca, Marcia Angela Aguiar, María Alice Setúbal, María Aparecida Horta, María Clara Di Pierro, Maria Malta Campos, María Teresa Secco, María Thereza Marcílio, María Virginia de Freitas, Michèle Sato, Miguel Arroyo, Moacir Gadotti, Nora Krawczyk (Argentina), Pablo Gentili (Argentina), Paulo Roberto Padilha, Pedro Pontual, Rosa María Crivelente, Roseni Rosângela de Sena, Rosiver Pavan, Salete Valesam Camba, Sergio Haddad, Silvia Tabares, Sonia Couto Souza Feitosa, Timothy Ireland, Vera Barreto, Vera Masagão Ribeiro, Walter García.

COLOMBIA: Alejandro Acosta Ayerbe, Jose María Alvarez, M. Constanza Arango, Marta Arango, Alvaro Araujo, Héctor Arias Pabón, Rafael Pabón, Clara Inés Buriticá A., Luis Felipe Canosa Torrado, Elsa Castañeda, Gloria Inés Currea, Francisco de Roux, Jorge Flórez Gacharná, Jorge Gantiva, Alvaro García M., Juan Carlos Garzón, Andrey González, Leonardo E. Gutiérrez B., Clara Guadalupe Higuera, Fernando Iriarte, Roberto Jiménez, Carlos Arturo Lopera, Camilo Madariaga Orozco, Elba Martínez de Dueri, Marco Raúl Mejía, Aníbal Mendoza Pérez, Lilian Motta de Correa, Aníbal Mendoza, Buenaventura Moreno Lemus, Jaime Niño Díez, Miryam Ochoa, Luis Enrique Orozco, Jorge Ossa, Luis Héctor Peña Vargas, Luis Alberto Perea, Benigno Pérez, Mauricio Pérez Abril, Jairo Ricardo Pinilla, Pedro Pinilla Pacheco, Angel Pérez M., Jorge Posadas, Carlos A Ramírez Escobar, Napoleón Ramírez, Claudia Rivera, Abel Rodríguez Céspedes, Arturo Rojas, Manuel Romero, Carolina Sánchez B., Martha Cecilia Sánchez, Miguel Sánchez S., Clara Sanín Fonnegra, Héctor Sierra C., Julio Silva Colmenares, Carmen Elvira Soler, Andrés Martín Tapias, Martha Vargas de Avella, Gladys Villamarín.

COSTA RICA: Gladys Jiménez Valverde, María Elena Rodríguez Acevedo, Julio Silesky.

CUBA: Carlos Alfaro Alfaro, Jesús García del Portal, Lisardo García, Luis I. Gómez Gutiérrez, Orlando Valera Alfonso.

CHILE: Diane Alméras (Canada), Jenny Assael, Beatrice Avalos, Beverley Carlson (USA), Eliseo Cañulef, +Patricio Cariola S.J., Verónica Edwards, María Loreto Egaña, Antonio Elizalde, Flavia Fiabane, Isabel Guzmán, Ricardo Hevia, María Isabel Infante, Sonia Lavín Herrera, María Eugenia Letelier, Pamela Márquez Pauchard, Eugenio Ormeño, Jorge Osorio, Diego Palma, Jorge Pavez Urrutia (and Colegio de Profesores de Chile), Joanna Pincetti, Teresa Quiroz, Cecilia Richards, Alejandra Valdés, Rodrigo Vera (Mexico), Guillermo Williamson.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: José Antinoe Fiallo, Fabiola Bustamante, Pilar Cachofeiro, Angela Calderón, Miriam Camilo, Rita Ceballos, Pura Emeterio, Josefina Espaillat, Dignora García, Consuelo Gimeno, Raymundo González, Nicolás Guevara, Adalberto Martínez, Josefina Pimentel, Daniel Pimienta (Morocco), Luis Quezada, Roberto Reyna, Yoe F. Santos, Julio Valeirón.

ECUADOR: María de Lourdes Abad, Patricio Aguas, Norma Alvear, Cecilia Amaluisa (and research team and educators at the Centro de Educación y Promoción Popular - CEPP, and teachers of Proyecto SER), Mary Andrade, Alfredo Astorga, Lupe Ayala, Maritza Balderrama, Gonzalo Barreno (and CECAFEC team ), Teodoro Barros, Marena Briones Velasteguí, Consuelo Carranza, Fernando Carrión, César Cárdenas, Patricio Crespo Coello, Patricio Chaves Z., Ricardo Darquea, Ana Lorena Domenech, Edgar Alan García, Fernando García, Daniel González, Patricio Hidalgo, Javier Izco, Nelsy Lizarazo (Colombia), Dolores Padilla, Jessica Meléndez, Alejandra Molina, José Monge, Julieta Monsalve, Luis Montoya, Rodrigo Muñoz, Wendy Paja, Miguel Palacios, Eugenia Parrales, Gabriel Pazmiño, Samia Peñaherrera, Monserrate Pico, Francisco Porras, Nidya Quiroz (Panamá), Magaly Robalino, Yuri Robalino, Judith Rodríguez, Wilmer Romero, Rocío Rosero, Alvaro Sáenz, Juan Saltos, Napoleón Saltos, Juan Samaniego, María Gabriela Solís Plaza, Juana Sotomayor, Anita Tacuri, Jorge Torres, Rosa María Torres (Argentina, drafting group), Elvia Tréllez, Raúl Vallejo, Sandra Vásquez, Juan Fernando Velasco, Nila Velásquez, Marco Villarruel, Susana Yépez Miño, Diego Zambrano, Nelly Zambrano.

EL SALVADOR: María Luisa Jáuregui (Chile), María Francisca Marín de Nóchez, Oscar Picardo Joao.

GUATEMALA: Matthias Abram (Germany), Hno. Oscar Azmitia, Arnoldo Esven Escobar, María Luisa Escobar de Gómez, Xabier Gorostiaga.

HAITI: Ariel Azael, Suzy Castor, Michaelle Saint-Natus.

HONDURAS: Ramón Alvarez Maldonado.

JAMAICA: Anne Hudson (Australia), Marjorie Newman-Williams (USA).

MEXICO: Marta Acevedo, Pilar Adriano, Eduardo Aguado López, María de la Paz Aguiñaga, Fernando Aguirre, Irma Aguirre Pérez, Alicia de Alba, Armando Alcántara, Elvira Almaraz, Guillermo Alonso Angulo, Mónica Alvarado, Enrique Alvarez Alcántara, Fátima Alvarez, Ivonne Alvarez, Carlos Andrade, María Teresa Aranda Pérez, Lourdes Aravedo Resendiz, Marcos Arias Ochoa, Manuel Audelo, Federico Ayometzi, Bonifacio Barba, Arturo Barraza Macías, María Guadalupe Barrón, Miguel Bazdresch, Auxilio Benites, Benjamín Berlanga, Carlos Bravo Vásquez, Jaime Brito, Rosa Nidia Buenfil, Jorge Luis Caballero, Beatriz Calvo Pontón, Gabriel Cámara, Miguel Angel Campos, Rodolfo Campos López, Alejandro Canales, José Carbajal, Martha Casarini (Argentina), Alfonso Castillo, Marco Antonio Carrillo, Marco Castillo, Tomás Caudillo, Lucila Cerrillo, María Teresa Cervantes, Juan Collado, Sonia Comboni, Jorge Contreras Méndez, Caridad Cortez, Basilio Cruz Escamilla, Erika Cuéllar, Yadira Chacón, Marie Chamussy Lesort, Mercedes Charles, Jose Chim Ku, Eduardo De la Garza, Ana Deltoro, Amada Elena Díaz, Angel Díaz Barriga, Daría Elizondo, Alberto Flores Martínez, Alejandro Galicia López, Crisóforo Gallardo Vargas, Daniel Gámez, Julieta García, Reyna García, Eduardo Garduño, Tere Garduño, Sara Gaspar, Manuel Gil Antón, Alicia Gómez Andares, Edgar González Gaudiano, Alfredo Gómez Castellanos, Olivia González, Rosalba González Villela, Alvaro Guadiana, Eliseo Guajardo, Gloria Guajardo Ramos, Arturo Guillaumen, Beatriz Gurrola, Leticia Gutiérrez, Eduardo Ibarra Colado, María de Ibarrola, Rosa Isela Granados, Gerardo Hernánez Rojas, Sergio Hernández Montiel, Catalina Inclán Espinosa, Judith Kalman, Michele Knobel (Australia), Luz Jiménez, Colin Lankshear (New Zealand), Alejandra Lastiri, Pablo Latapí (drafting group), Enrique Leff Zimmerman, María de Jesús López, Rodolfo López Arzola, Martha López Astrain, Guadalupe López Ortiz, Marino López Vásquez, Rodrigo López Zavala, Aurora Loyo, Oswaldo Lozano Cantú, María de la Luz Lugo, Blanca Luna, Germán Luna, Juan Machín, Juan Madrigal, Adriana Márquez, Felipe Martínez Rizo, María Teresa Martínez, Epifanio Jesús Martínez, Elia Marum Espinosa, Enriqueta Medellín, Ana María Méndez, Gerardo Mendive, Javier Mendoza Rojas, Juan Millán, José A. Montes, Carlos Muñoz Izquierdo, Humberto Muñoz García, Aracely Navarrete, Marco Aurelio Navarro Leal, Amalia Nivón, Gustavo Oaxaca, Erika Ocampo, Natalie O´Donnell, Roberto Olvera, Mario Ornelas, Lorena Orozco, Santiago Orozco Gutiérrez, Félix Ortiz, Yolanda Ortiz Bustamante, John Wilson Osorio, Ursula Oswald Spring, Juan Carlos Palafox (Chile), Rosa María Patiño, Carmen Pérez Gutiérrez, Juan Pérez Medina (and Sindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de la Educación - SNTE, Sección Michoacán), Patricio Pérez Estrada, Sofía Pérez, Enrique Pieck, Luisa Pizeta, Luis Porter, Roberto Pulido, José Luis Ramírez, William Ramírez, Juan Pablo Ramos, Rosa María Ramos Montero, Juan Manuel Rendón, Nicanor Reyes, Sebastián Reyes, Silvia Reyes de García, Carlos Rincón Ramírez, Armando Ríos, Elsie Rockwell, Adolfo Rodríguez, Ernesto Rodríguez, Lucía Rodríguez G., Roberto Rodríguez Gómez, Lorena Romero, Jesús Ruiz Flores, Mercedes Ruiz, Omar Ruiz, Luis Ruiz Alvarez, Carmen Ruiz Nakasone, Sarah Ruiz, Arcadio Sabido, María Guadalupe Sáenz, Leandro Saldaña, Gabriel Salom Flores, Carmen Lilia Sánchez, Patricia Sánchezllanes, Aurelio Sandoval Romo, Etelvina Sandoval, María Teresa Sandoval, Sylvia Schmelkes (drafting group), Alicia Silva, Mayra Solano, Elsa Solares, Susan Street, Telma Strossi, José Manuel Suárez, Alejandro Tapia, Guadalupe Terán Ballesteros, Carmen Torres, Angel Valles Mendoza, Gabriela Vargas Cetina, Gloria Velasco, Sofía A. Vernon, Ismael Vidales Delgado, Lorenza Villa Lever, Sandra Villagómez, Carlos Villarino, Salvador Villarreal, Eduardo Weiss, Rosaura Zamudio, Jorge Zarco Laveaga, Carlos Zarco Mera, Margarita Zarco, Ricardo Zepeda.

Observatorio Ciudadano de la Educación, with over 800 members affiliated.

NICARAGUA: Juan Bautista Arrien, Isolina Centeno (Paraguay), Katherine Grigsby (Guatemala), Georgina Muñoz Pavón, Josefina Vijil.

PANAMA: Mariela Arce, Raúl Leis.

PARAGUAY: Juan Díaz Bordenave (Brazil), María Teresa Ferreira Escobar, Miguel Angel López, Jesús Montero S.J., Domingo Rivarola, Jorge Talavera, Roberto Zub.

PERU: Jaime Acuña, Rosa María Alfaro, Rosa Arízaga, Francisco Basili, María Berrío, María Rosa Boggio, Zoila Boggio Carrillo, Fernando Bolaños, Juan Borea Odría, Liliana Camborda, Isaac Canales Quevedo, Sigfredo Chiroque, Julio Dagnino, Kenneth Delgado, Ana María Escalante, José María García Ríos (Spain), Shona García Valle, Juan Ignacio Gutiérrez (and Ayuda en Acción Piura, Bambamarca, Arequipa, Ica, TACIF Lima, TIPACOM Lima, Centro de Transferencia Tecnologica Trujillo, Centro de Estudios Sociales Solidaridad Chiclayo, Proyecto Desarrollo Integral Andino Cajamarca, Escuela Campesina de Educacion y Salud Cajamarca, Proyecto Cordillera Negra Ancash and 413 education centers in the Andean rural area of Peru), Gloria Helfer, Manuel Iguíñiz, Wolfgang Küper (Germany), Matthias Lanzendörfer, Luis Enrique López (Bolivia), Marta López de Castilla, José Maguiña Villón (Bolivia), Julio Mendoza García, Arturo Miranda, Angélica Montané, Ricardo Morales Basadre, Ismael Muñoz, Luis Obregón Cerna, Ernesto Olano, Ana María Orihuela, María Amelia Palacios, Grover Pango Vildoso, Eliana Ramírez, Isabel Rivera, José Rivero (Chile), Graciela Ruiz Durán, Guillermo Sánchez Moreno, Luis Miguel Saravia, Jaime Tejeda, Teresa Tovar, Manuel Valdivia Rodríguez, Martín Vegas Torres, Pilar Villegas, Idel Véxler, José Zeballos, Madeleine Zúñiga.

Students of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Lima): Luis Enrique Alan, Guillermo Anglas, Guadalupe Arias, Yanet Berlanga, Carlos Baltazar, Ananí Camacho, Martín Cuesta, Gisela Cueva, Alex Cumba, Juan José Cuya, Dora Emilia Chipana, Lorena de la Vega, Edwin Félix, Cyrielle Fernández, Paulino Ganboa, Milagros García, Héctor Gonzáles, Mercedes González, Nilton Guarnizo, Flora Herrera, Jessica Lagos, Gelly Llamosas, Antonio Medina, Antonio Mendoza, Rosa Molina, Miguel Angel Montoya, Nancy Paredes, Paola Pauparcaja, Nancy Portocarrero, Jackelin Quintana, Víctor Quinto, María Elena Quispe, Vanessa Roum, Luis Salazar, Roberto Serna, Jaime Suárez, Lidia Torres, María Tucto, Patricia Ugarte, Vilma Urrutia, María Vargas, Kathy Vílchez, Hilda Yfuro, Angélica Yupanqui.

URUGUAY: Yamandu Acosta, Jorge Barrera, Cecilia Blezio, Víctor Brindisi, Adriana Briozzo, Alberto Brusa, Carmen Caamaño, Arlés Caruso, Nora Castro, Ariel Celiberti, Marta Demarchi, Lydia Ducret, Sonia Fernández-Lauro (France), Dafne Ferrúa, FENAPES (Federación Nacional de Profesores de Enseñanza Secundaria del Uruguay), Héctor Florit (and Federación Uruguaya del Magisterio - FUM), Alba Grieco, Susana Grunbaum, Rosario Illa, Mauricio Langón, Gustavo Macedo (and Federación Latinoamericana de Trabajadores de la Educación y la Cultura - FLATEC/Cono Sur), Raúl Martínez, Pablo Martinis, Irma Menéndez, Fernando Miranda, Susana Regent, Lorena Ressano, Nydia Richero, Eduardo Rodríguez, Pilar Ubilla, María Alicia Xavier de Mello, Alice Zunini.

VENEZUELA: Andrea Barrios, Gabriela Bronfenmajer, Olga Caicedo, Antonio Luis Cárdenas, Ramón Casanova, Norma Castillo, Beatriz Ceballos, Victor Court, Issac Díaz Blanco, Soraya El Achkar, Manuel Fernández, Pablo Fernández Blanco, Argelia Ferrer, Mabel de Flores, Lilian Gaiza Caro, William Hernández, Lilián Leiva, Auxiliadora Lobo, Pedro Lugo, Soraya Medina, José Moya, Luis Nascimento, Rita Pucci, Irma Rodríguez, Lucio Segovia, Sergio Serrón, Juan Carlos Verdú.

Venezuelan Netwok of Education in and for Human Rights: Colectivo Aportes, Programa Venezolano de Educación Acción en DD.HH (PROVEA), Vicaría Episcopal de Derechos Humanos de la Arquidiócesis de Caracas, Red de Apoyo por la Justicia y la Paz, Oficina de Derechos Humanos del Vicariato Apostólico de Puerto Ayacucho, Oficina de Derechos Humanos de la Diócesis de San Fernando de Apure, Humana Dignitas (Vicaría de DD.HH. de Ciudad Guayana), Comisión de DD-HH "Derecho y Justicia" de la Arquidiócesis de Ciudad Bolívar, Asociación Fraternidad y Orientación Activa (AFOA), Comisión de Defensa de los Derechos Ciudadanos de la Universidad de Carabobo (CODDECIUC) seccionales Valencia y Maracay, Comité de Derechos Humanos de Guasdualito (CODEHUM), Asociación de Defensa de los Derechos Humanos (ADDH) Maracay, Cátedra de la Paz y los Derechos Humanos "Monseñor Oscar A. Romero" de la Universidad de Los Andes, Centros Comunitarios del Aprendizaje (CECODAP), Centro de Derechos Humanos de la UCAB, Comité de Familiares de Víctimas de los sucesos de febrero y marzo de 1989 (COFAVIC), Amnistía Internacional (Venezuela Chapter).

Adhesions from outside the region:

ALBANIA: Lenin Guzmán (Ecuador).

CABO VERDE: Aidil Borges.

CANADA: Daniel Schugurensky (Argentina).

SCOTLAND: Tom Molony.

FRANCE: Manuel Ulloa (Mexico).

GERMANY: Christine Merkel, Josef Müller.

INDIA: Anil Bordia, Manish Jain.

ITALY: Livia de Tommasi.

KOSOVO: Lucía D'Emilio (Italia).

PORTUGAL: Patricia Joyce Fontes (USA).

SPAIN: Pep Aparicio Guadas, José Alfredo Aparicio Serrano, Antonio Bolívar Atía, Jaume Carbonell, César Coll, Ramón Folch, María Jesús Freire, Javier García Gómez, Manuel García Treviño (Mexico), Olga Lucía Hoyos De Los Ríos, Angel Marzo, Juan Antonio Menéndez-Pidal, Mercedes Muñoz-Repiso, Luis M. Naya Garmendia, José Ramón Orcasitas, Javier Orosa, Amparo Porta, Agueda Quiroga (Argentina), William Restrepo (Colombia), J. Venancio Salcines Cristal, Florentino Sanz, Diego Sevilla Merino, Miguel Soler Roca (Uruguay).

SWEDEN: Janet Vahamaki.

SWITZERLAND: Olivier Berthoud

THE NETHERLANDS: Louk de la Rivebox, Leonardo Yánez y Arelys Moreno de Yánez (Venezuela), Boudewijn Van Velzen.

UK: Sheila Aikman, Claudia Flores Moreno (Mexico), Evodia Silva (Mexico).

US: Robert Arnove, Alan Crawford, Miguel Angel Escotet (Spain), Gustavo Fischman (Argentina), Ash Hartwell, Jorge Jeria (Chile), Steven Klees, Bradley Adam Levison, Karla Loya (Mexico), Francisco Marmolejo, Vandra Masemann, Gail McClure, Frank Method, Fernando Reimers (Venezuela), Nelly Stromquist (Peru), Emily Vargas-Barón, César Verdugo Flores, Arcadio Viveros. 


Prepared by Daniel Schugurensky (OISE/UT), 2002

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Last updated on September 26, 2004.